The Arabic “Ulysses” according to the collated lists I published here late last year. This is an interesting inclusion on that list as it was published in 1855, therefore it pre-dates Joyce’s masterpiece by at least 63 years (using the serialised publication on “Ulysses” as the comparison date). This is the period when Dickens began serialising “Little Dorrit”, when William Makepeace Thackeray’s “The Newcomes” appears, and when Anthony Trollope’s “The Warden” is published. I cite these examples as Ahmad Fāris Al-Shidyāq’s “Leg Over Leg” is a work that leaps decades ahead of its time in both style and subject matter.
The extensive, and insightful, Foreword by Rebecca C. Johnson advises us that “Al-Shidyāq’s body of work – seen as a whole – is equally difficult to categorize neatly. Most frequently, al-Shidyāq is seen as a modernizer, a renovator of Arabic letters who “had little regard for literary tradition” and who instead looked to Europe for literary modes that would replace those discredited indigenous ones.” (p xviii) As well as stating “Leg over Leg can be seen as a portrait in miniature of Arabic literary modernity, if we understand that modernity as it has been more recently described in scholarship: a contested category marked by self-interrogation and a “constant reworking of the meaning of community” through language, created not by being imported from the West, but through interaction with Europe.” (pg x-xi)
I’ve committed myself to writing a book that would be a repository for every idea that appealed to me, relevant or irrelevant, for it seemed to me that what was irrelevant to me might be relevant to someone else, and vice-versa. (p155)
This is a difficult book to review, made up of al-Shidyāq’s tales, although the main protagonist is named Fāriyāq, the autobiographical parallels are hard to ignore, the narrative plot is thin, however the literary riches are plentiful.
Using a raft of literary devices, it is a reader’s delight. Frequently referring to the act of writing the book, our protagonist is a scribe, as a reader you are immersed in the experience;
…anyone reading the book is asked to turn the pages slowly and focus closely in order to uncover the hidden meanings conveyed through jokes and the other excellent features that have been placed within its separate chapters. Another of the book’s excellent qualities is that, when it mentions something, it says everything there is to say about it, while also taking into consideration every aspect of any similar words. (from “An Introduction by the Publisher of This Book” p 17)
Opening with an exultation of the book as well as a defence of its contents, the physical object and its creation are never far away from the reader’s gaze. Using poetry, the book opens with a seven-page Proem, and rhyming prose;
Were I, though, to describe him in the Frankish way, I’d say he was a donkey son of a donkey, born of a she-ass all of whose ancestors were donkeys. His color tended toward the black and his hair felt like thorns when you touched his back; his ears were cropped and listless, his legs stiff, his coat starting to fall, and he was toothless; wide-mouthed, slack-lipped, and with buttocks splayed, not to mention that he sniffed at she-asses’ pee, rolled on the ground, smeared his dung everywhere and sprayed. The stick on him had no effect, nor did rebuke, when he disobeyed and he never moved unless he sensed food, be it only darnel. No trace of animal nature would he show until a she-ass he espied; then you’d see him frisk and gambol, show vigor and pull the bridle to one side, so that he often overturned his load or sent it askew; and another peculiarity he had too, which was that, rarely though his molars were put to work, everywhere he defecated and incessantly over hill and dale he flatulated, making him seem yet more ill-fated. He’d been rasied in lands where there was an abundance of cabbage, radish, rape, turnip, and cauliflower, as there is in certain foreign parts, and was therefore accustomed from his youth to producing farts, and this condition had only grown worse as he’d grown older. Thus any who walked behind him had, perforce, to hold his nose and keep saying “How coarse!” In any case, whichever of the two descriptive modes you choose, of all the pains of the journey and its injuries, keeping company with this beast was by no means the least. (p119-121)
In Chapter 10 we advised of the difficulty of using rhyming prose;
Rhymed prose is to the writer as a wooden leg to the walker. I must be careful therefore not to rest all my weight on it every time I go for a stroll down the highways of literary expression lest its vagaries end up cramping my style or it toss me into a pothole from which I cannot crawl. Indeed, it seems to me that the difficulties of rhymed prose are greater than those of poetry, for the requirements regarding linking and correspondence set for lines of verse are fewer than those for the periods of rhymed prose. In rhymed prose, the rhyme often leads the writer from his original path to a place he would never have wanted to reach had he not been subjected to its constraints. Here our aim is to weave our story in a way acceptable to every reader. (p149)
Puns, word plays and exploration of word’s inner meanings are littered throughout, the immersive experience forcing you to change your reading style. We have a four page paragraph listing numerous synonyms for the vagina and the penis, al-Shidyāq then telling us;
In addition, I have imposed on the reader the condition that he not skip any of the “synonymous” words in this book of mine, many though they be (for it may happen that, on a single road, a herd of fifty words, all with the same meaning, or with two meanings that are close, may pass him by). If he cannot commit to this, I cannot permit his to peruse it and will not offer him my congratulations if he does so. I have to admit that I cannot support the idead that all “synonyms” have the same meaning, or they would have called them “equi-nyms”. (p47)
An example of the puns at play; – “doing business with whatever capital (and assets)”, the translation coming from “The head of the money and its tail” here the author is playing with the literal meaning of the Arabic expression meaning “financial capital”.
Translator Humphrey Davies must be given enormous credit for his work on this book, with extensive lists of synonyms and near synonyms, the rhyming prose, the puns, it would have been no easy task to capture these in English. In fact, this book was shortlisted for the 2014 Best Translated Book Award, losing out to Ottilie Muzlet’s translation of László Krasznahorkai’s “Seiobo There Below”.
Containing scathing attacks on the atrocities and morals of the church and their treatment of the writer’s brother, the autobiographical references often come to the fore, and this is where the extensive Foreword mentioned before becomes a very useful tool. My edition of the book is presented in both the original Arabic, alongside the English translation, and would surely be a scholar of Arabic literature’s dream.
A book that has been described as “unclassifiable”, it follows a similar path to Don Quixote, with seemingly random tales appearing throughout Fāriyāq’s journeys, it also reminded me of Lawrence Sterne’s “Tristram’s Shandy”, however rightfully this is a unique book, a literary tour-de-force, a journey into another culture which is highly instructive and educational, here’s hoping the other three volumes are of a similar quality.